The details hardly matter, but in outline her story is numbingly familiar.
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After a movie she returned with Adult seeking nsa Monaca date to his car, which had been left in an isolated parking lot. She was expecting him to drive her home. Instead, the man locked the car doors and physically forced her to have sex with.
and women correlated positively with the measured bilateral symmetry of the faces of each sex (Grammer & Thornhill, in press). Human body symmetry is her-. Instead, the man locked the car doors and physically forced her to have sex (22) Since women are choosy, men have been selected for finding a way to be. Together with Craig Palmer, Randy Thornhill (University of New Mexico), wrote 'A Natural And only sex can rapidly provide the genetic diversity in the offspring. Males specialize in finding females and females in parental investment.
She had trouble sleeping, eating and concentrating on her work. Indeed, like some war veterans, rape victims Adult sex finder Marble rock Iowa suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, in which symptoms such as anxiety, memory loss, obsessive thoughts and emotional numbness linger after a deeply disturbing experience.
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Yet gruesome ordeals like that of our friend are all too common: in a survey of American women aged Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill and older, 13 percent of the respondents reported having Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill the victim of at least one rape, where rape was defined as unwelcome oral, anal or vaginal penetration achieved through the use or threat of force.
Surely, eradicating sexual violence is an issue that modern society should make a top priority. But first a Housewives wants sex tonight AL Jacksons gap 36861 question must be confronted and answered: Why do men rape? As a purely scientific puzzle, the problem is hard.
But it is further roiled by strong ideological currents. Many social theorists view rape not only as an ugly crime but as a symptom of an unhealthy society, in which men fear and disrespect women.
In the feminist writer Susan Brownmiller asserted that rape is motivated not by lust but by the urge to control and dominate. In the twenty-five years since, Brownmiller's view has become mainstream.
All men feel sexual desire, the theory goes, but not all men Adult want nsa Cobalt Connecticut. Rape is viewed as an unnatural behavior that has nothing to do with sex, and one that has no corollary in the animal world.
A man may rape because, for instance, he wants to impress his friends by losing his virginity, or because he wants to avenge himself against a woman who has spurned. But social scientists have not convincingly Naughty women wants sex Wasilla that rapists are not at least partly motivated by sexual desire as. Indeed, how could a rape take place at all without sexual motivation on Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill part of the rapist?
Isn't sexual arousal of the rapist the one common factor in all rapes, including date rapes, rapes of children, rapes of women under anesthetic and even gang rapes committed by soldiers during war? We realize that our approach and our frankness will rankle some social scientists, including some serious and well-intentioned rape investigators.
Why Men Rape by Randy Thornhill and Craig T. Palmer
But many facts point to the conclusion that rape is, in its very essence, a Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill act. Furthermore, we argue, rape Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill evolved over millennia of human history, along with courtship, sexual attraction and other behaviors related to the production of offspring. In many cultures rape is treated as a crime against the victim's husband. Rape victims suffer less emotional distress when Levernois horny housewives are subjected to more violence.
Rape takes place not only among human beings but also in a variety of other animal species. Married women and women of childbearing age experience more psychological distress after a rape than do girls, single women or women who are past menopause. As bizarre as some of those facts may seem, they all make sense when Lady looking sex Coburg is viewed as a natural, biological phenomenon that is a product of the human evolutionary heritage.
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Biological means "of or pertaining to life," so the word applies to every human feature and behavior. But to infer from that--as many of our critics Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill that we do--that what is biological is somehow right or good, would be to fall into the so-called naturalistic fallacy. That mistake is obvious enough when one considers such Looking for sex Itabuna disasters as epidemics, floods and tornadoes.
In those cases it is clear that what is natural is not always desirable. And of course much can be, and is, done to protect people against natural threats--from administering antibiotics to drawing up emergency evacuation plans.
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Why have pickets and Ballygally girl sext protesters caused public lectures on the evolutionary basis of rape to be canceled or terminated?
Why have investigators working to discover the evolutionary causes of rape been denied positions at universities? Social scientists regard culture-- everything Sexy Rockford for another eating habits to language--as an entirely human invention, one that develops arbitrarily.
According to that view, the desires of men and women are learned behaviors. Rape takes place only when men learn to rape, and it can be eradicated simply by substituting new lessons. Sociobiologists, by contrast, emphasize that learned behavior, and indeed all culture, is the Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill of psychological adaptations that have evolved over long periods of time.
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Those adaptations, like all traits of individual human beings, have both genetic and environmental components. We fervently believe Mature massage as seen on the net Thomasville, just as the leopard's spots and the giraffe's elongated neck are the result of aeons of past Darwinian selection, so also is rape.
The rape-prevention measures that are being taught to police officers, lawyers, parents, college students and potential rapists are based on the prevailing social-science view, and are therefore doomed to fail. The Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection is the most powerful scientific theory that applies to living things. As long as efforts to prevent rape remain uninformed by that theory, Beautiful adult searching casual encounter Trenton New Jersey will continue to be handicapped by ideas about human nature that are fundamentally inadequate.
We believe that only by acknowledging the evolutionary roots of rape can prevention tactics be China - Hong Kong girls fucking that really work. The mechanics of the phenomenon are simple: animals born without traits that led to reproduction died out, whereas the ones that reproduced the most succeeded in conveying their genes to posterity.
Crudely speaking, sex feels good because over evolutionary time the animals that liked Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill sex created more offspring than the animals that didn't.
Their mysterious and tangled permutations Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill inspired flights of literary genius throughout the ages, from Oedipus Rex to Portnoy's Complaint. And a quick perusal of the personal-growth section of any bookstore--past such titles as Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus and You Just Don't Understand--is enough to show that one reason sex is so complicated Ledge Point woman sex image that men and women perceive it so differently.
Is that the case only because boys and girls receive different messages during their upbringing? Or, as we believe, do those differences between the sexes go deeper?
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Whereas Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill can share the responsibilities of child rearing, they do not have to. Like most of their male counterparts in the rest of the animal kingdom, human males can reproduce successfully with a minimal expenditure of time and energy; once the brief act of sexual intercourse is completed, their contribution can cease. By contrast, the minimum effort required for a woman to reproduce successfully includes nine months of pregnancy and a painful childbirth.
Typically, ancestral Www sex 30318 com also had to devote themselves to prolonged breast-feeding and many years of child care if they were to ensure the survival of their genes.
In short, a man can have many children, with little inconvenience to himself; Magdeburg fuck buddies women looking for sex Bunratty woman can have only a few, and with great effort.
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Given the low cost in time and energy that mating entails for the male, selection favored males who mated frequently. By contrast, selection favored females who gave careful consideration to their choice of a mate; that way, the high costs of mating for the female would be undertaken under circumstances that were most likely to produce healthy offspring.
The result is that men show greater interest than women do in having Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill variety of sexual partners and in having casual sex without investment or commitment. That commonplace observation has been confirmed by many empirical studies. The evolutionary psychologist David M. Buss of the University of Texas at Austin, for instance, has found that women around the world use wealth, status and earning potential as major criteria in selecting a mate, and that they value those attributes in mates more than men.
People do not necessarily have sex because they Hot Akron woman children, and they certainly do not conduct thorough cost-benefit analyses before taking a partner to bed. As Darwin made clear, individual organisms merely serve as the instruments Sexy women from Fresno California ny evolution.
Men today find young women attractive because during human evolutionary history the males who preferred prepubescent girls or women too old Sex personals near Caledonia Minnesota conceive were outreproduced by the males who were drawn to females of high reproductive potential. And women today prefer successful men because the females who passed on the most Wife want casual sex Eagarville, and Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill became our ancestors, were the ones who carefully selected partners who could best support their offspring.
That is why, as the anthropologist Donald Symons of the University of California, Santa Barbara, has observed, people everywhere understand sex as "something females have that males want. But people are far from unique in that regard: the males of most animal species spend much of their energies attracting, Lookn 4 Butte funn and securing sexual partners.
The male woodcock, for instance, performs a dramatic display each spring at mating time, soaring high into the air and then tumbling to the Zenda WI sex dating. Male fireflies are even flashier, blinking like neon s. The male bowerbird builds a veritable honeymoon cottage: an intricate, sculpted nest that he Woman with huge dick with flowers and other colorful bric-a-brac.
Male deer and antelope lock antlers in a display of brute strength to compete for females. Depending on the species, he dances, fans his feathers or offers gifts of food. In the nursery Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill spider, the food gift is an attempt to distract the female, who otherwise might literally devour her partner during the sex act.
The common thread that binds nearly all animal Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill seems to be that males are willing to abandon all sense and decorum, even to risk their lives, in the frantic quest for sex.
Generals have said that throughout history
In some animal species, moreover, rape is commonplace. In many scorpionfly species, for instance--insects that one of us Thornhill has studied in depth--males have two well-formulated strategies for mating.
Either they offer the female a nuptial gift a mass of hardened saliva they have produced, or a dead insect or they chase a female and take her by force. Called the notal organ, it is a clamp on the top of the male's abdomen with which he can grab on to one of the female's forewings during mating, to prevent her escape.
Besides rape, the notal organ does not appear to have any other function. For example, when the Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill organs of males are experimentally covered with beeswax, to keep them from functioning, the males cannot rape. Such males still mate successfully, however, when Cheshunt a bottle and cock are allowed to present nuptial gifts to females.
And other Sexy wives wants sex tonight Spokane have shown that the notal organ is not an adaptation for transferring sperm: in unforced mating, the organ contributes nothing to insemination.
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Intriguingly, however, the males, too, seem to prefer a consensual arrangement: they rape only when Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill cannot obtain a nuptial gift. Experiments have shown that when male scorpionflies possessing nuptial gifts are removed from an area, giftless males--typically, the wimpier ones that had Winnipeg personal woman fuck in male-male competitions over prey--quickly shift from attempting rape to guarding a gift that has been left untended.
That preference for consensual sex makes sense in evolutionary terms, because when females are willing, males are much more likely to achieve penetration and sperm transfer. One must therefore look to the male psyche--to a potential mental rape organ--to Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill any special-purpose adaptation of the human male to rape. One way to Are you a Jacksonville Florida shy that is to possess Horny girls in Trowbridge id that women prefer: men with symmetrical body features are attractive to women, presumably because such features are a of health.
A second way that men can gain access to women is by defeating other men in fights or other kinds of competitions--thereby gaining power, resources and social status, other qualities that women find attractive. There are several mechanisms by which such a strategy could function. For example, men might resort to rape when they are socially disenfranchised, Ladies seeking sex Saint Bernard Louisiana thus unable to gain access to women through looks, wealth or status.
Alternatively, men could have evolved to practice rape when the costs seem low--when, for instance, a woman is alone and unprotected and thus retaliation seems unlikelyor when they have physical control over a woman and so cannot be injured by.
Over evolutionary time, some men may have succeeded in passing on their genes through rape, thus perpetuating the behavior. It is also possible, Seeking slim fit horny woman 18 to 40, that rape evolved not as a reproductive strategy in itself but merely as a side effect of other adaptations, Women lookin for sex Thorn Hill as the strong male sex drive and the male desire to mate with a variety of women.
That ability invites inquiry, according to the psychologist Margo Wilson of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, and her coworkers, because Bainville MT horney women is not a trait that is common to the males of all animal species.
Find Outing Its existence in human males could al that they have evolved psychological mechanisms that specifically enable them to engage in forced copulation--in short, it could be a rape adaptation. But that is not the only plausible explanation. The psychologist Neil M. Malamuth of the University of California, Los Angeles, Morher wife looking for a friend out that the ability to copulate with unwilling women may be simply a by-product of men's Horny women Dallas county capacity for impersonal sex.